Faculty Information

Timothy Bromage, PhD

New York University College of Dentistry
Dept. of Molecular Pathobiology
345 East 24th Street, Room 817-S, New York, NY 10010
Phone: +1-212-998-9597    
Fax: +1-212-995-4445
E-mail: tim.bromage@nyu.edu


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PhD, Biological Anthropology, University of Toronto 1986
MA, Biological Anthropology, University of Toronto 1980
BA, Anthropology, Biology, Geology, California State University, Sonoma 1978


  • 2020 Elected Full Member, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Honor Society
  • 2015 Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 2013 Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar
  • 2011 Omicron Kappa Upsilon inductee, National Dental Honor Society
  • 2010 Max Planck Prize (Life Science), Max Planck Society and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Research Interests / Professional Overview

Professor Bromage directs the Hard Tissue Research Unit (HTRU), a mineralized tissue preparation and imaging technology development laboratory of the Department of Molecular Pathobiology, NYU Dental. Mineralized tissue biology with emphasis on its translation to environmental and evolutionary studies are key to many of Bromage's HTRU pursuits, which include microanatomical correlates of bone and tooth biomechanics, enamel and bone growth rate variability in respect to environmental perturbations, and skeletal disease research. Recently, he has reported on a hitherto unrecognized chronobiological rhythm in bone microstructure that corresponds to a previously observed but enigmatic enamel formation rhythm in mammals, establishing the basis for understanding how chronobiology and organismal life history evolution are integrated.

Professor Bromage supplements laboratory research with African Late Pliocene paleontological fieldwork of significance to human evolutionary research, the surveys of which have recovered the oldest known representative of the human genus, Homo rudolfensis, 2.4 Ma, as well as its contemporary, Paranthropus boisei, from the shores of Lake Malawi. Fieldwork on Late Pleistocene pygmy elephant and pygmy hippopotamus localities in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are also ongoing, which provides a natural experiment of relevance to interpretations of modern human dental reduction.

The integration of graphic and heuristic elements in the digital photomicrography of bone and tooth microanatomy is important to Professor Bromage, who presents the work as abstract art; his exhibit is currently touring Europe. Images include a variety of subjects of relevance to his equally integrative research agenda, from images of gene knockout mice in novel cancer research, to human evolutionary studies including micro-anatomical images from the bones of "Lucy" (a representative of the earliest humans from Ethiopia, ca. 3.0 Ma).

Professor Bromage is recipient of the 2010 Max Planck Prize in the Life Sciences (paleobiomics; emphasis in Human Evolution), is Honorary Professor of La Salle University, Madrid, Spain, and is Honorary Research Fellow of the Department of Paleoanthropology, Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt, Germany.

To learn more about current paleobiomics initiatives

Current Funding

National Institutes of Health, United Nations Development Fund.

Representative Publications

Complete listing available on the NYU Health Sciences Library site.

Search PubMed for articles.

2020 Rabieh S, Bayaraa O, Romeo E Amosa P, Calnek K, Idaghdour Y, Ochsenkuehn MA, Amin SA, Goldstein G, Bromage TG. MH-ICP-MS Analysis of the Fresh and Salt Environmental Water Resources of Upolu Island, Samoa. MDPI Molecules, 25, 4871, https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/21/4871

2020 Karaaslan H, Seckinger J, Almabrok A, Hu B, Dong H, Xia D, Dekyi T, Zhou J, Bromage TG. Enamel multidien biological timing and body size variability among individuals of Chinese Han and Tibetan origins. Annals of Human Biology, https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1785010.

2020 Cerrito P, Bailey SE, Hu B, Bromage TG. Parturitions, menopause and other physiological stressors are recorded in dental cementum microstructure. Scientific Reports 10: 5381, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62177-7.

2020 Modesto-Mata M, Dean MC, García-González R , Quintino Y, Lacruz RS, Bromage TG, García-Campos C, de Pinillos MM, Martín-Francés L, Martinón-Torres M, Carbonell E, Arsuaga JL, de Castro JMB. Short and long period growth markers of enamel formation distinguish European Pleistocene hominins. Scientific Reports, 10 :665.

2019 Smolyar I, Bromage T, Wikelski M. Layered patterns in nature, medicine and materials: quantification of anisotropic structures and cyclicity. PeerJ 7:e7813 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7813.

2019 Bromage TG, Juwayeyi YM, Katris JA, Gomez S, Ovsiy O, Goldstein J, Hu B, Schrenk F. Corrigendum to "The scaling of human osteocyte lacuna density with body size and metabolism." Comptes rendus Palevol, 18, 492; DOI: 10.1016/j.crpv.2019.03.001.

2019 Eckstein M, Vaeth M, Aulestia FJ, Costiniti V, Kassam SN, Bromage TG, Pedersen P, Issekutz T, Moursi AM, Feske S, Lacruz RS. Differential regulation of Ca2+ influx by ORAI channels mediates enamel mineralization. Science Signaling, 12: eaav4663. https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aav4663.

2019 Lacruz RS, Stringer CB, Kimbel WH, Wood, B, Harvati K, O’Higgins P, Bromage TG, Arsuaga J-L. The evolutionary history of the human face. Nature Ecology & Evolution, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0865-7.

2018 Bäuchle M, Lüdecke T, Rabieh S, Calnek K, Bromage TG. Quantification of 71 detected elements from Li to U for aqueous samples by simultaneous-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, 8: 37008-37020. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra07070a.

2016 Bromage TG, Lacruz RS, Idaghdour Y, Crenshaw TD, Ovsiy O, Rotter B, Hoffmeier K, Schrenk F. The Swine Plasma Metabolome Chronicles "Many Days" Biological Timing and Functions Linked to Growth. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0145919. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145919.

2016 Lacruz RS, Bromage TG, O'Higgins P, Arsuaga JL, Stringer C, Godinho R, Warshaw J, Martínez I, Gracia A, Bermudez de Castro JM, Carbonell E. Facial ontogeny in Neanderthals and their ancestors. Nature Communications, 6:8996, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9996.

2015 Bromage TG. Long in the tooth: Striations in teeth reveal the pace of life. Natural History 123, 16-21.

2015 Lacruz RS, Bromage TG, O'Higgins P, Toro-Ibacache V, Berger LR. Distinct growth of the nasomaxillary complex in Au. sediba. Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/srep15175.

2014 Bromage TG, Janal MN. The Haveres-Halberg Oscillation regulates primate tissue and organ masses across the life history continuum. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society DOI: 10.1111/bij.12269.

2013 Lacruz RS, Bermúdez de Castro JM, Martinón-Torres M, Paine ML, Carbonell E, Arsuaga JL, Bromage TG. Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans. PLoS ONE. 8:e65199-e65199.

2012 Bromage TG, Hogg RT, Lacruz RS, Hou C. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history. Journal of Theoretical Biology 305: 131-144.

2012 Caufield PW, Li Y, Bromage TG. Hypoplasia-Associated Severe Early Childhood Caries – A Proposed Definition. Journal of Dental Research 91: 544-550.

2012 Dirks W, Bromage TG, Agenbroad L D. The duration and rate of molar plate formation in Palaeoloxodon cypriotes and Mammuthus columbi from dental histology. Quarternary International 255: 79-85.

2012 Lacruz RS, Ramirez Rozzi FV, Wood BA, Bromage TG. Molar development and crown areas in early Australopithecus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148: 632-640, 2012. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22089.

2012 Lacruz RS, Hacia JG, Bromage TG, Boyde A, Lei Y, Xu Y, Miller JJ, Paine ML, Snead ML. The circadian clock modulates enamel development. Journal of Biological Rhythms 27: 237-245, 2012. DOI: 10.1177/0748730412442830

2012 Lacruz R.S., Smith C.E., Moffatt P., Chang E.H., Bromage T.G., Bringas P. Jr., Nanci A., Baniwal S.K., Zabner J., Welsh M.J., Kurtz I., Paine M.L. Requirements for ion and solute transport, and pH regulation, during enamel maturation. Journal of Cellular Physiology 227: 1776–1785. PMID: 21732355

2011 Bromage T.G., Juwayeyi Y.M., Smolyar I., Hu B., Gomez S., Chisi J. Enamel-Calibrated Lamellar Bone Reveals Long Period Growth Rate Variability in Humans. Cells Tissues Organs 194,124–130. Doi: 10.1159/000324216.

2011 Holmes G., Bromage T.G., Basilico C. The Sox2 high mobility group transcription factor inhibits mature osteoblast function in transgenic mice. Bone 49: 653-661. PMID: 21703370

2011 Yang J., Bromage T.G., Zhao Q., Xu B.H., Gao W.L., Tian H.F., Tang H.J., Liu D.W., Zhao X.Q. Functional Evolution of Leptin of Ochotona Curzoniae in Adaptive Thermogenesis Driven by Cold Environmental Stress. PloS One 6, e19833. PMID: 21698227

2011 Lacruz R.S., Lakshminarayanan R., Bromley K.M., Hacia J.G., Bromage T.G., Snead M.L., Moradian-Oldak J., Paine M.L. Structural Analysis of a Repetitive Protein Sequence Motif in Strepsirrhine Primate Amelogenin. PloS One 6, e18028. PMID: 21437261

2011 Fiorenza L., Benazzi S., Tausch J., Kullmer O., Bromage T.G., Schrenk F. Molar macrowear reveals Neanderthal eco-geographic dietary variation. PloS One 6, e14769. PMID: 21445243

2009 Bromage, T.G., Lacruz, R.S., Hogg, R., Goldman, H.M., McFarlin, S.C., Warshaw, J., Dirks, W., Perez-Ochoa, A., Smolyar, I., Enlow, D.H., Boyde, A. Lamellar bone is an incremental tissue reconciling enamel rhythms, body size, and organismal life history. Calcified Tissue International 84: 388-404. PMID: 19234658

2009 Bromage, T.G., Goldman, H.M., McFarlin, S.C., Perez-Ochoa, A., Boyde, A. Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy of a 3my Australopithecus afarensis Femur. Scanning 31: 1-10. PMID: 1919126

2009 Bromage, T.G. Coupled microbial and human systems: evidence for a relationship between infectious disease and gross national product. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 15 (Suppl. 1): 51-53. PMID: 19220356

2008 Bromage, T.G., Boyde, A. Bone Growth Remodeling of the Early Human Face. In (Enlow, D.H., Hans, M., Eds) Essentials of Facial Growth. W B Saunders Co.: New York. pp 319-342.

2008 Bromage, T.G., McMahon, J., Thackeray, J.F., Kullmer, O., Hogg, R., Rosenberger, A.L., Schrenk, F., Enlow, D.H. Craniofacial architectural constraints and their importance for reconstructing the early Homo skull KNM-ER 1470. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 33: 43-54. PMID: 19093651

2008 McFarlin, S.C., Terranova, C.J., Zihlman, A.L., Enlow, D.H., Bromage, T.G. Regional variability in secondary remodeling within long bone cortices of catarrhine primates: the influence of bone growth history. Journal of Anatomy 213: 308-324. PMID: 18691379

2007 Bromage, T.G., Lacruz, R., Perez-Ochoa, A., Boyde, A. Portable confocal scanning optical microscopy of Australopithecus africanus enamel microstructure. In (Bailey, S.E., Hublin, J-J., Eds) Dental perspectives on human evolution: State of the art research in dental paleoanthropology. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 193-209.

2007 Yeh, N., Miller, J. P., Gaur, T., Capellini, T.D., Nikolich-Zugich, J., la Hoz, C. de, Selleri, L., Bromage, T.G., van Wijnen, A.J., Stein, G.S., Lian, J.B., Vidal, A., Koff, A. Cooperation between p27 and p107 during endochondral ossification suggests a genetic pathway controlled by p27 and p130. Molecular and Cellular Biology 27: 5161-5171. PMID: 17502351

2006 Lacruz, R. Bromage, T.G. Appositional enamel growth in molars of South African fossil hominids. Journal of Anatomy 209: 13-20. PMID: 16822265

2006 Bromage, T.G. Science networks and the future of integrative research. In (Bromage, T.G., Vidal, A., Aguirre, E., Perez-Ochoa, A., Eds). Integrative Approaches to Human Health and Evolution. Elsevier: Amsterdam. pp. 160-174.

2005 Goldman, H.M., Thomas, C. D. L., Clement, J. G. Bromage, T. G. Relationships among microstructural properties of bone at the human mid-shaft femur. Journal of Anatomy 206: 127-139. PMID: 15730478

2003 Bromage, T.G., Goldman, H.M., McFarlin S., Warshaw, J., Boyde, A. Riggs, C. Circularly polarized light standards for investigations of collagen fiber orientation in bone. Anatomical Record: The New Anatomist 274B: 157–168. PMID: 12964206

2002 Bromage, T.G., Dirks, W., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Huck, M., Kulmer, O., Öner, R., Sandrock, O. Schrenk, F. A life history and climate change solution to the evolution and extinction of insular dwarfs: A Cypriot experience. In (Waldren W.H., Ensenyat, J.A., Eds.) World Islands in Prehistory: International Insular Investigations V Deia Conference of Prehistory. British Archeological Reports International Series 105: 420-427.

1995 Palaeobiogeography of the Malawi Rift: Age and vertebrate palaeontology of the Chiwondo Beds, northern Malawi. Bromage, T.G., Schrenk, F. & Juwayeyi, Y.M. Journal of Human Evolution 28: 37-57.

1995 Palaeoanthropology of the Malawi Rift: An early hominid mandible from the Chiwondo Beds, northern Malawi. Bromage, T.G., Schrenk, F. & Zonneveld, F.W. Journal of Human Evolution 28: 71-108.

1995 Pattern of collagen fiber orientation in the ovine calcaneal shaft and its relation to locomotor-induced strain. McMahon, J.M., Boyde, A. & Bromage, T.G. Anatomical Record 242: 147-158.

1993 Oldest Homo and Pliocene biogeography of the Malawi Rift. Schrenk, F., Bromage, T.G., Betzler, C. & Ring, U. Nature 365: 833-836.

1992 Application of mineral quantitation of bone by histogram analysis of backscattered electron images. Boyde, A., Howell, P.G.T., Bromage, T.G., Elliott, J.C., Riggs, C.M., Bell, L.S., Kneissel, M., Reid, S.A., Jayasinghe, J.A.P. & Jones, S.J. In (Slavkin, H. & Price, P., Eds.) Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues. Elsevier Science Publishers: Amsterdam. pp. 47-60.

1991 Enamel incremental periodicity in the Pigtailed Macaque: A polychrome fluorescent labeling study of dental hard tissues. Bromage, T.G. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 86: 205-214.

1990 Regional Distribution of mineral and matrix in the femurs of rats flown on Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. Mechanic, G.L., Arnaud, S.B., Boyde, A., Bromage, T.G., Buckendahl, P., Elliott, J.C., Katz, E.P. & Durnova, I. FASEB, 4: 34-40.

1989 Ontogeny of the early hominid face. Journal of Human Evolution 18: 751-773.

1987 The biological and chronological maturation of early hominids. Journal of Human Evolution 16: 257-272.

1986 Age at death of the Neanderthal child from Devil's Tower, Gibraltar and the implications for studies of general growth and development in Neanderthals. Dean, M.C., Stringer, C.B. & Bromage, T.G. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 70: 301-309.

1985 Re-evaluation of the age at death of immature fossil hominids. Bromage, T.G. & Dean, M.C. Nature 317: 525-527.

1985 Taung facial remodeling: A growth and development study. In (P.V. Tobias, Ed.) Hominid Evolution: Past, Present, and Future. Alan R. Liss: New York. pp. 239-245.